Materials Education Symposia - Home

2017 Program
8th North American Materials Education Symposium

Symposium Day One: Thursday, August 24

time session
8.00 am Registration, coffee, and Poster setup
8.45 am Welcome Address
  SESSION 1: INNOVATION IN TEACHING
9.00 am Co-chairs
Prof. Lorna Gibson, Materials Science and Engineering, MIT, USA
Marc Fry, Education Division, Granta Design, UK
Session Introduction
9.05 am Dr. Norman L. Fortenberry, Executive Director, American Society for Engineering Education, USA Developing and Recognizing Faculty Instructional Skills
9.25 am Prof. Christine Ortiz, Entrepreneur, and Morris Cohen Professor at MIT, USA
An Inclusive and Humanistic Future for Science and Technology-Focused Higher Education with Application to the Field of Materials Science and Engineering
9.45 am Dr. Elliot P. Douglas, Program Director, Engineering Education, National Science Foundation, USA
Starting a Revolution: Beyond Curriculum Reform
10.05 am Prof. Geoffrey Beach, Materials Science and Engineering, MIT, USA
New Engineering Educational Transformation (NEET) Program
10.25 am Poster Teaser Session
Poster Presenters invited to give a one-minute presentation
10.45 am One-hour Poster Session
Coffee
11.45 am Prof. Julia Ortony, Materials Science and Engineering, MIT, USA
Goodie bags: A new route to hands-on chemistry learning through take-home mini-experiments
12.05 am Dr. Bradley Diak and Bob Minor, Queen’s University, Canada
Materials Processing - Becoming Skilled in the Art
12:25pm Prof. John Nychka and Prof. Glenn Hibbard, University of Alberta and University of Toronto, Canada
Developing heuristics for understanding and teaching about complicated matter
12.45 pm Session discussion led by the session chair
1.00 pm Symposium photograph
1.05 pm Lunch
  SESSION 2: ENGAGING STUDENT INTEREST
2.00 pm Co-chairs
Prof. John Nychka, University of Alberta, Canada
Dr. Sunniva Collins, Case Western Reserve University, USA
Session Introduction
2.05 pm Prof. Lorna Gibson, Materials Science and Engineering, MIT, USA
Engaging students in mechanical behavior of materials with stories of art, history and biomechanics
2.25 pm Prof. Albert Dato, Harvey Mudd College, USA
Teaching Materials Science Through Art
2.45 pm Dr. Lan Li, Boise State University, USA
Engaging Students in Learning Materials Science through Computation
3.05 pm Poster Session continued
Coffee/Afternoon Tea
3.30 pm Dr. Ronald Kander, Jefferson University, USA
Acting: A Metaphor for Teaching?
3.50 pm Assoc. Prof. Amber Genau, University of Alabama, Birmingham, USA
The evolution of engineering materials
4.10 pm Prof. James Shackelford, University of California, Davis, USA
Materials Education Online: Incorporating Sustainability
4.30 pm Session discussion
4.45 pm MITx Round Table Developing an online subject on edX
Dana Doyle, Director, MITx Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
Caitlin Stier, WGBH (former MITx producer), USA
Dr. Jessica Sandland, Office of Digital Learning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
Lana Scott, Manager, Media Services, MOOC Development at MIT Office of Digital Learning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
Prof. Caroline Ross, Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
5.25pm Prof. Steven Yalisove, University of Michigan, USA
Mr. Marc Fry, Education Division, Granta Design, UK
Introduction to 2018 NAMES at University of Michigan
5.30pm Close
6:30pm Shuttle to the Materials Education Symposium Dinner (open to all)
from Le Meridien Cambridge-MIT Hotel
7.00pm Materials Education Symposium Dinner(open to all)
Boat will depart on-time at 7pm

Symposium Day Two: Friday, August 25

time session
8.30 am Registration and coffee
  SESSION 3: LEARNING THROUGH MAKING
9.00 am Co-chairs
Assoc. Prof. Alison Polasik, The Ohio State University, USA
Dr. Ronald Kander, Jefferson University, USA
Session Introduction
9.05 am Prof. Neri Oxman, MIT Media Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
Revolution in Education using 3D Printing
9.25 am Dr. Laura Katharina Thurn, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Germany
If the mountain won't come to Muhammad, Muhammad must go to the mountain. Teaching 3D Printing and Materials based on a rolling Lab
9.45 am Dr. Doug Dunham, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, USA
3D Printing for Materials Design in Introductory Engineering
10.05 am Dr. Bandar AlMangour, Harvard University,USA
Developing an improved approach to teaching materials-science aspects of additive manufacturing
10.25am Coffee
11.00 am Prof. Steven Yalisove, University of Michigan, USA
Exploiting Diversity and Tapping into Collective Intelligence: Team Based/Project Based Learning
11.20 am Dr. Loretta K. Crippen, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, USA
Patricia M. Mulready, Morgan State University, USA
Innovation in Teaching Material Science in Textile Courses
11.40 am Prof. Martin Thuo, Iowa State University, USA
Frugal Innovation in Polymer Engineers Training
12.00 pm Dr. Simon Maidment, Kingston University, UK
Intelligent making: Materials education
12.20 pm Session Discussion
12.45 pm Lunch
  SESSION 4: COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING
1.40 pm Co-chairs
Prof. Steven Yalisove, University of Michigan, USA
Dr. Tanya Faltens, Network for Computational Nanotechnology, Purdue University, USA
Session Introduction
1.45 pm Dr. Bryce Meredig, Citrine Informatics, USA
Developing data-driven materials scientists: the Citrine NextGen undergraduate fellowship
2.05 pm Dr. David Johnson, Durham University, UK
Deployment of materials information technologies in an industrial context: An ACAP perspective
2.25 pm Dr. Susan Gentry, University of California, Davis, USA
Simulating Diffusion: A Scaffolded MATLAB Assignment
2.45 pm Prof. Richard Neu, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
Constructing Processing-Structure-Properties-Performance Maps to Support Materials Design
3.05 pm Coffee/Afternoon Tea
  SESSION 5: OUTREACH
3.40 pm Kaitlin Tyler, University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, USA
Increasing Engagement in Outreach Programs through Comprehension via Design and the Tetrahedron
4.00 pm Assoc. Prof. Alison Polasik, The Ohio State University, USA
Materials Science as a High School Elective Course
4.20 pm Session discussion
5.00 pm Close and photograph
6.00 pm Networking Dinner(open to all)

Presentation Abstracts

Developing and Recognizing Faculty Instructional Skills

Dr. Norman L. Fortenberry, Executive Director, American Society for Engineering Education, USA

I will make a case for more purposeful, focused attention to the quality of instruction (or promotion of learning) by individual engineering faculty. We will debate why such a shift in attention is desirable, what “environmental” changes have occurred that support such a move, when such attention could be more productively applied, and how such attention might be most productively effected. In discussing how, we will look at international precedents and models to consider their applicability in a US context.
Given that faculty are based locally within their institutions, but receive their most significant recognition globally within their discipline, we will consider various methods of measuring and recognizing such skills. A key issue will be the relative merits of showcasing exemplars versus mandating baseline attainment by all members within a defined population. International models will examined in this regard as well.
Anticipated outcomes are initiation of a continuing conversation on these issues and identification of the most productive avenues by which to move from discussion to action.


An Inclusive and Humanistic Future for Science and Technology-Focused Higher Education with Application to the Field of Materials Science and Engineering

Prof. Christine Ortiz, Entrepreneur, and Morris Cohen Professor at MIT, USA

This presentation will begin with a summary of the current trends, in a historical context, impacting higher education including, for example, the convergence and acceleration of science and technology, computation and big data, digital technologies and the learning sciences, automation and the changing nature of work, globalization and collaboration, as well as rising inequality. The changing nature of scientific and technological education in terms of knowledge, skills and mindset will then be discussed followed by emerging visions of a connected curriculum and engaged, permeable university. The current state of learning through research, that is authentic, experiential, project-based inquiry resulting in the generation of new knowledge, will be summarized including historical adaptations, new derivations, instructional approaches, and emerging opportunities. The challenges and history of interdisciplinary education at the intersection of science, technology and the humanities, arts and social sciences, as well as new inclusive Instruction, mentoring, and student support mechanisms will also be discussed.


Starting a Revolution: Beyond Curriculum Reform

Dr. Elliot P. Douglas, Program Director, Engineering Education, National Science Foundation, USA

Over the last 15 years there has been an increased emphasis within engineering education on providing students with the education and training to develop important professional skills in areas such as communication, teamwork, and complex problem solving. The need for these skills has been outlined in a number of reports that illustrate how the complex engineering problems of the 21st century demand more than technical competence. However, education in these areas is often hampered by rigid curricula and traditional pedagogies. The National Science Foundation Directorate for Engineering is helping to break these barriers through programs that provide support for innovate educational approaches: Revolutionizing Engineering and Computer Science Departments (RED), Research in the Formation of Engineers (RFE), and Research Initiation in Engineering Formation (RIEF). This presentation will illustrate how these programs have been successful at fostering innovations in engineering education.


New Engineering Educational Transformation (NEET) Program

Prof. Geoffrey Beach, Materials Science and Engineering, MIT, USA

The New Engineering Education Transformation (NEET) is an undertaking of the MIT School of Engineering, aiming to rethink engineering education in a fundamental way across the school. The organization of schools of engineering, particularly in the US, is currently focused around the old machines (mechanical, electrical, chemical, etc.). This tends to encourage disciplinary “silos” that do not readily encourage the multidisciplinary skillset required of engineers in the coming decades. The key idea of NEET is an orientation towards “new machines and systems,” where the term “machines” is used generally to describe all of the things that engineers build, including infrastructural, informational, molecular, mechanical and biological constructs. The program will teach a combination of disciplinary topics that cut across existing degree programs, with a foundation in modern engineering pedagogical approaches (e.g. digital learning, problem-based learning, engagement of students in managing their own learning, and the integration of leadership, service, and professional experiences including entrepreneurship). The core educational construct to achieve these aims is the NEET Project-Centric Curriculum, in which there is a shift in the center of gravity towards projects as a unifying thread, serving as an educational “scaffolding” for fundamental knowledge and NEET ways of thinking. In this talk, I will describe the motivations, principles, implementation, and desired outcomes of the NEET program.


Goodie bags: A new route to hands-on chemistry learning through take-home mini-experiments

Prof. Julia Ortony, Materials Science and Engineering, MIT, USA

We have recently instituted a hands-on component (referred to as “Goodie Bags”) to a Freshman Chemistry class at MIT, 3.091 Introduction to Solid State Chemistry. Every week, each student takes home a small bag of items to “touch, feel, and experience the chemistry” in their own lives. These are not labs or any version of a lab-component for the class. Rather, the goodie-bags are mini-experiments intended to bring the key material of the week to life and to foster exploration, reinforce abstract concepts with tangible actions, and engage students with different learning experiences. Specific examples of goodie-bag experiments as well as outcomes of this type of hands-on learning will be discussed.


Materials Processing - Becoming Skilled in the Art

Dr. Bradley Diak, Queen’s University, Canada

A popular approach to teaching engineering that evolved out of the law and business schools is the use of case studies. Depending on the subject there may be a limited number of truly excellent cases that warrant careful study, and with time cases can become familiar and even stale, lowering student interest and making evaluations more difficult.
In the teaching of materials science and engineering, which is the interest of the present forum, there is another approach we have developed at Queen’s University over the last 5 years that utilizes an untapped well of knowledge, the patent.
In teaching materials processing based upon the text by Porter, Easterling and Sharif, we have looked at ways for students to develop and demonstrate their understanding of the fundamental principles behind materials processing in real and interesting ways.
The Patent Project takes a patent describing a pre-chosen materials processing recipe and asks the students to “become skilled in the art.” Patents are a valued contribution to our global society, and so are important for young engineers to understand.
In this paper we describe one processing patent studied by our 3rd class and the lessons learned. The concept and structure of intellectual property is first described in a lecture to enable students to read their patent. Over 6 weeks, students study the patent and prepare a final report that evaluates their understanding of the process, and critical and system thinking. The strength in our approach is that there are an almost unlimited number of patents freely available to study so that projects remain fresh. At the heart the project emphasizes the importance of fundamental science to understand the patent, and encourages students to become critical thinkers in challenging a patent’s content. Finally our approach instructs creativity by showing pathways for process development.


Developing heuristics for understanding and teaching about complicated matter

Prof. John Nychka and Prof. Glenn Hibbard, University of Alberta and University of Toronto, Canada

“If words are not things, or maps are not the actual territory, then, obviously, the only possible link between the objective world and the linguistic world is found in structure, and structure alone.” Alfred Korzybski.
The grand challenge of the natural and social sciences, and humanities is to come to a meaningful understanding of enormously complicated material systems. Systems thinking approaches manifest in different ways for different contexts. At the same time, all academic disciplines are bounded by the words chosen or invented by those struggling to understand phenomena, mechanisms, and behaviour at a time when ideas, concepts, and notions are in their infancy. There is a widespread need to simplify complex and complicated systems, which results in naming ‘things’ to make communication and learning easier.
But, as Alfred Korzybski would write, the general problem of language is that it can also become a conceptual prison – misconceptions, preconceptions, and contextual interpretations are but a few ways in which language betrays our intended meaning.
We argue that Engineering materials can play a unique role here as conceptual heuristics: our materials are some of the very simplest forms of matter. Because of their technological importance, materials have been the subject of enormous study, to the point that we now have very clear relationships between basic ontological primaries and their relationships across many orders of magnitude of length and time.
As educators, we realize that novice learners desperately need simplification, yet with maturity, the learner becomes better able at identifying and embracing complexity and complications within systems. How can we effectively enable cognitive shifts from simple to complex/complicated? This talk will therefore consider the potential for using materials as a heuristic for structure-based understanding of systems in general. A central question is: do learners need a more robust linguistic taxonomy for materials?


Bringing materials to life: Evolution, materials and design

Prof. Mike Ashby, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, UK

The SPPP tetrahedron is the starting point for many texts and courses on Materials Science and Engineering. It is hard to think of a better scaffold on which to attach a bottom-up, nano-micro-macro approach to the subject, exploring each node and the interactions between them. But what this perspective lacks is a sense of the history, suggesting that Materials Science was born, so to speak, as it now is. The reality is quite different. Our understanding of materials has evolved, in little more than one life-time, from an empirically-based set of technologies into the science-based power-house of today. Behind this evolution has been a parallel evolution of materials themselves, of engineering design priorities and of society’s perceptions of what materials can do for us.
There is not much room in heavily-loaded Materials programs for discussion of all this, but it is important that students get some inkling of it. It provides a framework of a different kind and a channel for understanding what the job-description “Materials Scientist” now means and what it will become. Materials will continue to evolve, but so too will the pressure to integrate material science ever more intimately with engineering design and to adapt it to deal with emerging environmental, economic and social constraints. This talk will illustrate this evolution through images that help tell the story.


Engaging students in mechanical behavior of materials with stories of art, history and biomechanics

Prof. Lorna Gibson, Materials Science and Engineering, MIT, USA

I teach the core subject on mechanical behaviour of materials in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at MIT. We cover the usual topics: linear elasticity, stress transformations, viscoelasticity, plasticity, high temperature creep, fracture and fatigue. When I first taught the subject, I stuck to the engineering concepts and derivations.
Over time, to engage the students, I gradually added stories about art related to mechanics, the history of mechanics and interesting examples of mechanics applied to biological materials. This talk describes some of the stories that have made the class memorable for students.


Teaching Materials Science Through Art

Prof. Albert Dato, Harvey Mudd College, USA

A student who views a sculpture may understand the materials science behind its creation or the history of the artwork. However, a student rarely has knowledge of both of these subjects, nor the opportunity to create a work of art informed by both.
“Engineering Materials: The Art and Science of Sculpture” is an interdisciplinary, hands-on approach to teaching materials science and engineering to a broad range of students. The course generates a unique collaborative environment by teaming students majoring in engineering with students majoring in the arts, humanities, and social sciences.
The goal of the course is to introduce students to the materials science, history, and practice of three-dimensional art. This is accomplished through hands-on art projects that enable students to create sculptures from metals, glasses, and polymers. Simultaneously, students learn about the materials and processes used to create their sculptures. The course has an innovative instructional format that consists of five modules.
The modules are:
(1) lost-foam casting using aluminum,
(2) bending and welding of steel,
(3) 3D printing with polymers,
(4) hand shaping and blowing of glass, and
(5) found object art.
Results from pre- and post-testing, as well as student feedback, show that the course is effective in teaching fundamental concepts in materials science and engineering, particularly to women and students who are majoring in humanities, social sciences, and the arts. The modules used in the course could be implemented in introductory engineering courses, as well as in pre-college courses to encourage high school students to explore materials science. The course is a result of the collaboration between the Harvey Mudd College Department of Engineering and the Pitzer College Art Field Group, and was made possible by the Mellon Foundation Presidential Leadership Grant and the Rick and Susan Sontag Center for Collaborative Creativity.


Engaging Students in Learning Materials Science through Computation

Dr. Lan Li, Boise State University, USA

We developed and implemented 15 computational modeling modules in 5 undergraduate materials-related courses. Each course was scheduled 2-5 modeling classes. Before each class, students were required to watch short computational modeling lecture videos, reading textbook chapters, and completing reading homework.
In the class the instructor used computational modeling tools to demonstrate the selected course contents and guided the students to use the tools to solve materials problems. We evaluated students’ performance and experience of learning the modules.
The evaluation showed the modules:
(1) Increased student awareness and interest of computation;
(2) Fostered learning of materials science topics; and
(3) Improved student engagement.
The evaluation also indicated two controlling factors that affected student learning: computational modeling-course topic coupling and assessment method. The presentation will discuss the modules and how to tailor them for graduate education.


Acting: A Metaphor for Teaching?

Dr. Ronald Kander, Philadelphia University, USA

In this discussion, I would like to explore the idea of “acting” as a metaphor for “teaching”. The three dimensions of the metaphor that I would like to explore with the audience are: 1) the “teacher” as the “actor”, 2) the “lesson plan” as the “script”, and 3) the “classroom” as the “theater”. (Note that one could argue that, in the context of active learning, the “students” are the “actors” and the “teacher” is the “director”.) In considering the teacher (or the student) as the actor, we will explore theatrical concepts such as “costume”, “voice” and “movement”. In considering the lesson plan as the script, we will explore theatrical concepts such as “plot”, “characters” and “timing”. Finally, in considering the classroom as the theatre, we will explore theatrical concepts such as “stage”, “set” and “props”. With the help of the audience, we will consider extensions and expansions of this metaphor and how they might help inform us about our teaching/learning processes.


The Evolution of Engineering Materials

Assoc. Prof. Amber Genau, University of Alabama, Birmingham, USA

The author has developed an upper level engineering elective entitled “The Evolution of Engineering Materials.” The course considers how the discovery of new materials and the ability of process materials in new ways has influenced the course of history, shaping both human societies and their surrounding environments. The class begins in the Stone Age and moves forward in time through the Bronze Age, the Iron Age, the Middle Ages, the Industrial Revolution, and the Modern Era. Students become familiar with a variety of relevant technical content through the consideration of historical activity, from smelting and coking to polymerization reactions and crosslinking. In addition, the course addresses a variety of ABET outcomes, particularly by providing the broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context (ABET outcome (h)).
The presentation will provide an outline of the course topics and assigned readings, which include modern texts, primary sources from the 1st through the 20th centuries, and studies of archaeological materials. Although this course was developed for and taught in the context of three-week study abroad trips to Europe, the engaging and accessible nature of the content could also make it valuable as a service course for non-engineering majors. The course is currently serving as the inspiration for a new collaborative effort between the School of Engineering and the history department on the author’s campus. Starting in Fall 2017, a two-course, co-taught history sequence will be offered that is designed to help students understand and appreciate the importance of history to their work and identity as engineers, while also meeting some of the university’s general education requirements.


Materials Education Online: Incorporating Sustainability

Prof. James Shackelford, University of California, Davis, USA

A collaboration with UC Davis Extension to develop online education courses on materials science and engineering was presented at both the 6th NAMES at the Ohio State University in 2015 and the 7th NAMES at the University of California, Berkeley in 2016. In the past year, this effort has led to a dialogue with colleagues in the areas of sustainability and the circular economy.
This report at the 8th NAMES will focus on the following aspects of the overall effort:
1) A hybrid course consisting of a complete set of online lectures in conjunction with the introductory materials textbook Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers, along with traditional laboratory experiments on campus during UC Davis Summer Sessions. After four years, this has become the standard format for the summer offering of the introductory materials course at UCD.
2) A MOOC based on key topics covered in the online lectures in item 1 entitled “Materials Science: Ten Things Every Engineer Should Know.” An update will be given on this MOOC provided on the Coursera platform.
3) A review of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Conference on “Solid Urban Waste Management” in Rome in April 2016. The conference recommendations on sustainable practices will be discussed, along with the potential for raising public awareness through online education.
4) The further dissemination of the Rome Conference concepts from the perspective of the circular economy, as presented online through the Disruptive Innovations Festival (DIF) in November 2016. The role of the Granta Design CES EduPack in improving environmental performance of products through design will be emphasized.


Revolution in Education using 3D Printing

Prof. Neri Oxman, MIT Media Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA

Neri Oxman is an Architect, Designer and Associate Professor based at the MIT Media Lab where she is the founding director of The Mediated Matter Group. Her team conducts research at the intersection of computational design, digital fabrication, materials science and synthetic biology, and applies that knowledge to design across disciplines, media and scales—from the micro scale to the building scale. Areas of application include architectural design, product design, fashion design, as well as the design of new technologies for digital fabrication and construction. Oxman coined the term—and pioneered the field ofMaterial Ecology, which considers computation, fabrication, and the material itself as inseparable dimensions of design. Oxman’s work is included in permanent collections at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA), Centre Georges Pompidou, the Boston Museum of Fine Arts (MFA), Cooper Hewitt Smithsonian Design Museum, the Smithsonian Institution, the Museum of Applied Arts in Vienna (MAK), the FRAC Collection and the Boston Museum of Science, amongst others. Since 2005, Oxman and her team have won numerous awards and has grown in international scope and acclaim at venues such as the World Economic Forum and the White House.


If the mountain won't come to Muhammad, Muhammad must go to the mountain. Teaching 3D Printing and Materials based on a rolling Lab

Dr. Laura Katharina Thurn, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Germany

3D printing is about to revolutionize the way we produce products, thus including not only a new design and production strategy but the evaluation of new materials as well. As the printer is a production tool, it allows to integrate research on new and improved materials not just during the product development but in the education as well. As 3D Printing is an ideal tool to set up a decentralized production, it is one key to integrate even rural/under-industrialized parts of the country into high tech education. But how to reach the relevant groups? Extra training does not fit in the regular timetable of schools nor can a company accept off-hours of their employees to reach the training site. Consequently, rural parts of the country are again on the lose end. Remembering the old proverb: “If the mountain won't come to Muhammad, Muhammad must go to the mountain” the plan of a rolling printing lab was born.
Based on our experiences, we designed the technical infrastructure and the educational approach to adopt courses to a comprehensive teaching. We developed an upside down approach starting with the discussion of materials and – without deeper teaching - directly making parts on prepared printers. To create a fully fitted workplace for every participant, we redesigned a double-decker bus. The first floor is equipped with a teacher seat and eight computer spaces with all required software and filament printers. Besides that, the bus provides enough different materials in order to set up systematic test rows. Special attention is paid to the behavior of different materials and its contribution to the desired product properties. As an example soft materials and foam structures are printed to teach the characteristics of non rigid products.


3D Printing for Materials Design in Introductory Engineering

Dr. Doug Dunham, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, USA

Giving students the opportunity to engage in the materials design process in an Introductory Engineering course primarily for first year students is a challenge. In our introductory course, we have implemented a lab module where the students design a material for a given part geometry to withstand a specific tensile strength for the lowest cost. The material designed is a nylon-fiber composite. The part is printed on a Mark Forge II composite 3D printer and then tested to verify it meets the design constraints. The composite printer prints in nylon with a second extruder printing the reinforcing material in glass fiber, Kevlar or carbon fiber. The students have the ability to vary the fill density, the number of fiber layers, the number of concentric rings, and the angles of the isometric layers in order to meet the required tensile strength.
The students are limited to printing five or six sample parts to determine the material specifications needed to meet their design constraints. The students use information regarding the amount of nylon and fiber used to calculate the cost of the part. Students present their results in a technical document that describes the process they used, details of their final design and the cost per part to fabricate the part. In nearly all cases, the students meet the tensile strength constraint. Typically, students make it significantly stronger than the design constraint, so the cost is more than necessary.


Developing an improved approach to teaching materials-science aspects of additive manufacturing

Dr. Bandar AlMangour, Harvard University,USA

Additive manufacturing (AM), or 3D printing, is the future of manufacturing. However, the physics underlying AM is complex, with major differences between AM and traditional manufacturing methods, leading to greater epistemic uncertainty in defining the boundary conditions. This has prevented the rapid adoption of AM into industry. To resolve this situation, there is an urgent need for interdisciplinary scientific enterprises to improve existing knowledge, mainly on energy interaction and ensuring part qualification. This study focuses on developing an AM-related curriculum to introduce aspects of common AM technologies and their fundamental principles and specifications.
This paper aims to employ innovative interdisciplinary research to provide a comprehensive vision of the challenges involved in adopting AM and possible solutions. Emphasis is on the process-structure-property relationship and important AM applications in the biomedical, aerospace, automotive, tooling, and food printing industries, as well as 3D printing in construction. Furthermore, this paper explores “design for AM with material site-specific properties” and easily accessible tools for rapid optimization and sustainability. Transforming data into textbooks is the current challenge in this field.
Novel, advanced technologies such as micro-scale manufacturing, functional materials (i.e., electronics or optical materials), lightweight structures, 3D-vascularized tissues, bio-printing, and high throughput printing of multi-phase materials are discussed. In addition, there is a comprehensive overview of software systems and supporting technologies (such as vacuum casting, investment casting, plating, infiltration, and hot isostatic pressing). Contributions from leading researchers, animated illustrations, recent developments, and trends are included. The ASTM, SI, and other standards have also been considered.
This paper can benefit graduates, senior undergraduates, and post-graduate fellows majoring in the mechanical, manufacturing, and material sciences and engineering, as well as practitioners and researchers in the manufacturing industry who are working on product design and materials science. This paper will hold theoretical appeal for those interested in CAD/CAM.


Exploiting Diversity and Tapping into Collective Intellegence: Team Based/Project Based Learning

Prof. Steven Yalisove, University of Michigan, USA

Opportunities to take advantage of the diversity in large classes is often squandered when students are presented stand and deliver, teacher centric classes. Diversity includes race, gender, discipline, past performance, experience, etc. By replacing these large lecture classes with a team based- project based class we can reverse this trend. In fact, we will show how this leads to teams that can perform better and learn more by tapping into collective intellegence. Awareness is 80% of the solution. We have students read some excellent articles that explain the value of inclusion and mutual respect and how this is the key to success. Team discussion, instructional team coaching and facilitation, and lots of practice make this work.
Team activities and projects are focussed on helping teams succeed by incorporating projects, reflection about what each individual learns from the project, and developing engaging deliverables that culminate in project fairs.
Strategies for incorporating diversity via inclusion along with examples of how to develop effecive projects will be presented. In addition, a method to allow students to build mechanical testing instruments when they do not have access to a maker space or machine shop will be shown. Finally, student resistance is very common when you ask them to learn in a very different way than they are used to. These issues will be addressed and methods to avoid or resolve resistance will be presented. Evidence of adoption by other facutly will be presented and discussed in the context of new flexible classroom design. Resources to help faculty adopt some or all of these methods will also be presented.


Innovation in Teaching Material Science in Textile Courses

Dr. Loretta K. Crippen, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, USA
Patricia M. Mulready, Morgan State University, USA

The authors have been teaching textile/material science to a diverse student population including students at HBCU’s (Historically Black Colleges and Universities) and MSI’s (Minority Serving Institutions) in historically women’s programs. One author was challenged to modify existing curriculum worked in conjunction with NASA’s early space suit developer using a systems approach to encourage students to solve design problems.
This evolved into a new program on functional textile product design—currently taught at many universities. Currently, the authors—both women one at an urban campus and the other in the rural Delta— have developed courses in material/textile science at HBCU’s to develop new product concepts.
Students were more engaged in creating new product concepts than attending theoretical lectures. Examples of student projects will be presented i.e. textile composites of kenaf. Interns worked at ASC (Arts & Science Center) where they learned how to use thermoplastic materials to make masks for theatre. ASC, involved in the maker movement taught students how to do LED lights and other circuitry for smart textiles. Examples of student work will be given.
Students excelled in developing new product concepts using material science. The authors are preparing research proposals for expansion of activities to reach more HBCU students including an interdisciplinary research approach on campus which has CAVE, nanotechnology evaluation, and chemical analysis. Since many female students are interested in fashion including those interested in science, programs would be developed to target these students. One author brought a LED-lit tutu to a STEM EXPO for student recruitment; almost every girl came over to discuss the tutu and in the process learned textile development, STEAM intersections apparel design and technology, use of 3D printers for making fashion apparel and accessories, recent MIT skin textured NPD and its possible use in prostheses, etc.


Frugal Innovation in Polymer Engineers Training

Prof. Martin Thuo, Iowa State University, USA

Engineering training is sometimes encumbered by an over-reliance on technology. Although technology is sometimes necessary, materials science offers an opportunity to introduce simplicity through frugal design for sustainable engineering. This talk explores the challenges in designing 'concept-heavy' laboratory experiments while minimizing cost.
This idea of frugality as a new approach to sustainable engineering is implement through two case studies. The first case explores how swelling ratios can be used to emphasize solubility and solution thermodynamics, transport phenomena and hygrothermal stress in polymeric materials. In the second case study, step-growth polymerization and associated gel formation is used to teach concepts in polymer surfaces, polymerization, post-fabrication modification/processing, surface energy (role of chemistry and surface texture) and chemical vapor deposition. The two simple cases will be explored from a scientific and pedagogical point of view.


Intelligent making: Materials education

Dr. Simon Maidment, Kingston University, UK

This practical design project which we have run for several years aims to introduce undergraduate Product & Furniture Design students in their second year to the concept of 'intelligent making' as it relates to the creative and appropriate use and application of materials and manufacturing technologies. Emphasis is placed upon direct experimentation and investigation of materials and processes and the development of practical design outcomes informed through an understanding and awareness of the affecting factors of batch production.
The project has 2 phases: >1- Raw, 2 weeks: The students are provided with a limited amount of a very ‘humble’ or ‘mundane/plain’ material such as 1” angle-iron and asked to explore and ‘test’ it in the workshop and therefore form an emerging understanding of its ‘qualities and properties’. The students are encouraged to adopt a ‘what if’ attitude to their testing of the material. The outcomes of this stage are presented as a series of tests in which the student provides a narrative of what the aim of the test was and what it has revealed.
>2- Innovation, 6 weeks. The students are asked to further develop this approach to ‘thinking thru making’ in a given material and manufacturing context such as sand casting or ceramic slip casting. Again the approach is to ‘design’ and observe a process by which they can gather as much practical knowledge and understanding of a material and making process in order to practically and creatively extend or usurp it. The work produced in this project demonstrates innovation in both material usage as well as manufacturing method.


Developing data-driven materials scientists: the Citrine NextGen undergraduate fellowship

Dr. Bryce Meredig, Citrine Informatics, USA

Within a few years, all materials scientists will need to be able to comfortably analyze, mine, and model large-scale data as part of their daily work. Indeed, this emerging need for data-driven workforce development was highlighted as a pillar of the US Materials Genome Initiative's 2014 Strategic Plan. While most materials science curricula do not place a strong emphasis on programming, data structures, statistics, visualization, and machine learning, a few notable programs have emerged to provide such background, including D3EM at Texas A&M University, FLAMEL at Georgia Tech, and SEAS at NC State University.
As undergraduate and graduate curricula adapt to the emerging data-driven paradigm in materials science, Citrine Informatics is investing in data-intensive training for the next generation of materials scientists. In particular, Citrine has launched NextGen, a summer fellowship for undergraduates who want to work at the intersection of data science and materials science. This program provides these undergraduates intensive training in cutting-edge data-driven methods in materials science, and then enables the students to directly apply their new skillset in research projects at their home institutions.


Deployment of materials information technologies in an industrial context: An ACAP perspective

Dr. David Johnson, Durham University, UK

The Absorptive Capacity (ACAP) viewpoint of organisational learning has emerged as one of the most important concepts developed in business research in recent years. Introduced by Cohen and Levinthal (1989, 1990), it is defined as the ability to recognise the value of new information, assimilate it, and apply it in novel ways as part of organisational routines, policies and practices (Zahra and George, 2002). Moreover, it refers to learning processes that are fundamental to an organisation’s survival in the long term because they complement or readjust knowledge (Lane et al., 2006; Hurtado Ayala and Gonzalez-Campo, 2015).
The objective of this study is to examine the role of ACAP in the deployment of a company’s Materials Information Technologies (Granta MI and CES Selector). Drawing on the insights from a new model, we examine the precursors, constituents and mediators of ACAP and how their interrelationships enhance innovation success. These relationships are examined through an empirical investigation of a large multinational company in the Medtech Industry. Data analysis was conducted using PLS-SEM (variance-based partial least squares-structural equation modelling), which offers the opportunity to operationalise ACAP in different contexts, whilst capturing the richness of the construct (Ali and Park, 2016; Moos and Beimborn, 2013; Leal-Rodríguez et al. 2013; Cepeda-Carrion et al., 2012).
Our results show that ACAP is an important success factor in the acquisition and exploitation of materials knowledge, and that ACAP is positively mediated through Materials Information Technologies. The results also shed new light on the important role of ‘knowledge culture’ in this process.


Simulating Diffusion: A Scaffolded MATLAB Assignment

Dr. Susan Gentry, University of California, Davis, USA

Incorporating computational activities in the materials science curriculum is vital for students’ preparation as “technically agile” [1] members of a modern engineering workforce. However, one significant barrier to implementing discipline-based computational modules is the programming ability of students. Some students lack the expertise to code simple routines, even with prior programming coursework. To support these students, assignments can be scaffolded to incrementally enhance students’ abilities in preparation for their final project. Scaffolding is an educational framework that emphasizes designing activities to help students gain skills and knowledge that is needed to solve more complex problems [2].
This talk presents the scaffolding of a project which culminates in students simulating diffusion in MATLAB. Intermediate assignments bridge students’ limited programming knowledge with the skills needed for their final two-dimensional simulation.
The modules are as follows:
• Module 1: Introduction to MATLAB – Students watch videos and complete interactive MATLAB tutorials, then perform simple programming assignments.
• Module 2: Introduction to the Finite Difference Method (FDM) – Students are introduced to finite differences, then apply the method to calculate derivatives and predict reaction concentrations over time.
• Module 3: Simulating Diffusion in One Dimension – Students implement the FDM to simulate diffusion along the x-axis [3].
• Final Project: Simulating Diffusion in Two Dimensions – Students extend their code from Module 3 to include diffusion in both the x- and y- directions. Scaffolding can be utilized to support students when designing programming-intensive learning activities.
References: [1] A Report of the National Science Foundation Advisory Committee for Cyberinfrastructure, National Science Foundation, 2001. [2] Hammond, J. and P. Gibbons, “What is scaffolding?”, Scaffolding, ed. J. Hammond, 2001. [3] Thornton, K., University of Michigan.


Constructing Processing-Structure-Properties-Performance Maps to Support Materials Design

Prof. Richard Neu, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA

Foundational materials science and engineering courses today still tend to emphasize "good science," as defined by "reductionism," rather than "good materials," which emerge when engineering, manufacturing, and economic factors are included in the mix (Olson, 2000).
A healthy mix of reductionist and systems viewpoints is needed. However, materials science and engineering is typical taught, not as a systems-design problem, but reductionism, a bottom-up scientific approach. Students are invariably shown that the materials paradigm can be represented in a form of a tetrahedron with the corners representing the four-element paradigm of modern materials science and engineering: processing, structure, properties, and performance.
Unfortunately, this representation is a highly ineffective way to convey the knowledge of how these entities of the materials system are logically linked. In a foundational course, pieces of these linkages are invariably discussed from a reductionism point of view, but students often do not see the complete big picture, "the system," that each material embodies. An improved method to convey the knowledge about a particular material system is concisely summarized in a Processing-Structure-Properties-Performance (PSPP) map.
The map is a block flow diagram which contains a structured list of attributes and linkages within a material system. This is a useful tool that can effectively serve as a standard method of communication regarding the physical and chemical mechanisms that control the performance of a material system, and gives guidance on the type of data required to accurately characterize that materials system in its entirety. This presentation describes a workflow to construct a map for any material system, addressing common challenges encountered by novice mapmakers. This presentation then applies these steps in developing maps for high-strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys. Examples are also provided for other alloys to illustrate the value and functionality of the maps across various material systems.


Increasing Engagement in Outreach Programs through Comprehension via Design and the Tetrahedron

Kaitlin Tyler, University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, USA

Outreach summer camps, particularly those focused on increasing the number of women in engineering, are commonplace. They can be either multi-disciplinary or focus on a specific branch of engineering. Material science is popular for single discipline camps due to the widespread applications associated with it. Unfortunately, because of the field’s large scope, camps are forced to pick and choose what topics are covered. This can give the impression that the discipline is disjointed. This lack of cohesion within the camp can lead to participant confusion, which could be misinterpreted as a fundamental lack of engineering understanding. These types of feelings may discourage students from entering engineering, thus defeating the purpose of the program. Such confusion may further be exacerbated by the lack of an overarching design project, which is quite common in summer camps for other fields like mechanical engineering or computer science. Design projects increase engagement with students due to the inherent hands on nature and the freedom to interact with the material in a creative way. We propose a novel weeklong materials summer camp structure mixing a design project and 14 materials science topics together using the materials science tetrahedron paradigm as the framework. The purpose of this curriculum is to increase engagement through hands on activities and an increased sense of cohesiveness for materials science as a whole. The tetrahedron provides the structured activities with a uniform format and an overarching framework to connect everything together, easing the transfer of knowledge between subjects and increasing the students’ understanding of materials science. The open-ended design project is introduced on the first day of camp and is woven in throughout the week based on the participant’s co-current structured activities. Details on the camp’s organization will be provided, as well as the results from two years of implementation and restructuring.


Materials Science as a High School Elective Course

Assoc. Prof. Alison Polasik, The Ohio State University, USA

Since 2012, educators at The Ohio State University have teamed up with ASM and Ohio school districts to offer an intensive professional development program that teaches high school science teachers to use materials science-focused activities and demos in their classrooms. As this program has evolved, it has grown to support a number of schools and teachers offering materials science as an elective course. The hands-on and accessible nature of materials science make it an attractive alternative to more traditional high school courses such as chemistry and physics, and materials science elective courses are now being offered at a number of traditional and career-tech high schools across the state.
This presentation will discuss the evolution of materials science as a stand-alone course in a secondary school setting as well as the typical curriculum. The challenges and benefits will be explored from the perspective of the school districts and teachers themselves as well as from the college educators offering support and training. Finally, a model for development and more widespread propagation will be presented and input sought from the audience.